Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is a disease of the musculoskeletal system of progressive development and chronic in nature. Dystrophic changes begin in the cartilage tissue, which changes its structure, becomes loose, fibrous, thins and loses its cushioning function. As a result, the bone joints begin to rub against each other, motor activity is lost, and pain occurs. Without treatment, a person becomes disabled.
Clinical picture and causes of osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis of the hip occupies a preponderant place among the diseases of the musculoskeletal system and mainly affects the adult population after 35 years. In the medical classifier he received the code M16 according to MBK 10.
The hip joint is the largest in the human body and supports the greatest load. It connects the bones to the pelvis and has a spherical appearance. The round head of the femur is inserted into the acetabular notch. Its surface is covered with cartilage tissue, which allows the bones to slide and performs cushioning functions, protecting the bones from friction, destruction and providing a range of motion.
The mechanism of osteoarthritis is simple:
- The amount of synovial fluid decreases, which aggravates the joint and decreases the supply of nutrients.
- The structure of the joint loosens. Due to friction, the cartilage thins, it stops reducing the pressure on the bones.
- Growths (osteophytes) form along the edges of bone sites.
- The joint gap is gradually reduced.
- The person experiences severe pain, movement problems, the limb is shortened, causing lameness.
Osteoarthritis of the hip can develop for several reasons, but most often it is caused by a combination of adverse circumstances. The disease is divided into primary and secondary. In the first case, doctors do not find a reason for the development of the disease, in the second, osteoarthritis occurs due to certain pathologies.
- power loads, especially in the post-traumatic period, when the joint has not yet recovered;
- congenital defect of the femoral head (dysplasia);
- arthritis (joint inflammation);
- prolonged stress;
- hormonal changes and diseases of the endocrine system;
- Infectious diseases.
Osteoarthritis can be unilateral, with damage to the right or left hip joint. Most often there is a bilateral option, when the pathological process affects both sides.
Symptoms and degrees of osteoarthritis
The clinic of osteoarthritis directly depends on the stage of the disease. At first, a person begins to experience slight discomfort in the groin and morning stiffness in the leg, while swelling and swelling of soft tissue does not occur. As the pathology develops, an acute period begins, characterized by severe pain.
On a note. When the first symptoms are detected, you need to see a doctor and undergo an examination. Early disease responds well to treatment.
The main complaint of all patients is pain and limited mobility. Their severity depends on dystrophic changes in the cartilage.
There are 3 degrees of the disease:
- At 1 degree, only discomfort occurs after prolonged physical exertion (uphill climb, running, cycling), which disappears on its own after rest. The muscles are in good shape, the movements are not restricted. A narrowing of the joint space can be seen on the x-ray.
- At 2 degrees, the pain begins, which is given to the groin area, extended to the buttock and the front of the thigh. There are "starting" pains when you try to stand or start to walk, which goes away after 2-3 minutes. After prolonged exertion, the pain increases and disappears with rest. A symptom of osteoarthritis is a characteristic tightening of the joint, movement is limited (hip abduction), muscle strength decreases, with painful sensations, smooth muscle spasm occurs. On the x-ray, small osteophytes are visible, located along the edges of the bony areas of the joints. The femoral neck is thickened and widened, the joint space is considerably narrowed.
- At 3 degrees of illness the pain is permanent and does not subside even at rest. When walking, patients use improvised objects (cane, crutch). There is atrophy of the muscle tissue of the thigh and lower leg, the limb is shortened - in order to reach the floor, the patient is forced to stand on fingertips. The x-ray shows massive osteophytes, the femoral head is flattened, the line spacing is practically invisible.
Some doctors also distinguish the 4th degree of the disease. Ossification of the joint and complete disability occurs in it, a person cannot move without the help of crutches. The degree of osteoarthritis is established on the basis of X-ray images, which help to clarify the etiology of the pathological process.
There are the following types of osteoarthritis:
- dysplastic - the slope of the acetabulum is determined;
- post-traumatic - depends on the nature of the injury and the shape of the joint after bone fusion.
The causes of pathology in children are trauma, subluxation and dysplasia. Metabolic disorders can cause destruction of cartilage tissue.
The main symptom of the disease in children is pain syndrome after long games. As osteoarthritis develops, they become more intense and stronger. The child refuses to run, his appetite decreases, excessive tears appear. The second symptom is limited movement in the affected joint, numbness in the leg. Parents should pay attention to the characteristic crunch. If the first symptoms are detected, an urgent need to consult a doctor.
On a note. A child's body regenerates faster than that of an adult. Prompt treatment will save the child from disability.
If the diagnosis is confirmed, the main goal is to improve the blood supply to the joint. For this, the doctor prescribes various physiotherapy procedures, exercise therapy, visits to sanatoria, medication.
Prevention is good nutrition. Particularly important are vitamins of groups B, C, D. It is necessary to walk a lot in the fresh air, actively move and avoid traumatic situations.
Difference between osteoarthritis and other joint diseases
Many patients, having heard the diagnosis "osteoarthritis", confuse it with other diseases of the joints. Often, doctors of medical history note "coxarthrosis". The consonant words confuse the patient.
Osteoarthritis is the general name for pathological processes that provoke the destruction of cartilage tissue. It usually goes away with joint deformity without infectious and inflammatory processes. May affect the knee, elbow, shoulder, and other joints. Coxarthrosis is arthritis of the hip joint, as indicated by the prefix "cox", which highlights a specific area.
What is the difference between sacroiliitis and osteoarthritis? In the first case, inflammation of the sacroiliac joint occurs, characterized by pain in the sacrum when sitting. There is swelling in the vertebrae, pain in the buttocks. With osteoarthritis, there is a thinning of the cartilage, as a result of which the rubbing of the bones begins - this causes pain.
Arthritis is an inflammatory process in the joint tissue. The difference with osteoarthritis is that the latter is caused by mechanical movements that cause abrasion of the cartilage. With arthritis, swelling and redness occurs in the joint area, the cause being infectious diseases or inflammatory processes inside the body. The reactive stage of the disease almost always causes osteoarthritis. Pain sensations are similar, but with coxarthrosis they go away at night, and with arthritis they get stronger.
The clinical picture is similar. To correctly diagnose and rule out arthritis and sacroiliitis, doctors do a blood sample and test. An increased content of leukocytes and ESR indicates an inflammatory process in the body.
With osteoarthritis, long-term and complex treatment is required, based on medication, physiotherapy, exercise therapy and massage, while diet plays an important role. Good nutrition is necessary both at the stage of exacerbation and in remission. It must be balanced and contain all the essential vitamins. In addition, the diet promotes weight loss, which reduces stress on the joints.
- vegetables and fruits;
- lean meats;
- crumbly porridge on the water;
- dairy products;
- bran bread;
- a fish;
The menu should include gelatin. On its basis, you can prepare various desserts from berries and fruits, as well as jelly meat. Eat cottage cheese, yogurt, and milk every day. It is better to replace chicken eggs with quail eggs. Boil, simmer or steam food. Eliminate fried and fatty foods. Favor vegetable oils. Drink at least 1. 5 clean water a day. The temperature of the food should not be too high or too low.
Avoid quick snacks and fast foods with sugary soda water. Exclude semi-finished products, sausages, preservation. Favor natural products without added preservatives.
What is prohibited:
- smoked products;
- white bread and baked goods;
- hot spices;
- fatty meats;
- canned food;
- high fat dairy products;
- soft drinks;
Important. Food should be frequent, at least 5-6 times a day, 200 grams. Snacks are best made with your favorite fruits, you can drink a glass of kefir in the evening. Food should not exceed 2000 kcal for women and 3000 kcal for men.
Preventive measures consist of the rapid elimination of the root causes of the disease and general strengthening measures.
To prevent the development of the disease, you must adhere to the following rules:
- To live an active life. Swimming, exercise without stress on the joint is recommended. Preventive methods include a bath and sauna, which improve blood circulation and flush out toxins.
- Go on a diet. This is necessary to supply the body with the necessary vitamins and speed up metabolic processes.
- Avoid hypothermia. Low temperatures cause muscle cramps, which impairs the blood supply to the joint.
- To minimize the possibility of trauma, especially with the development of hip osteoarthritis.
Subject to the rules, patient reviews were positive. They noted decreased pain, restoration of joint mobility and improved well-being.
Coxarthrosis or osteoarthritis of the hip is a disease with a chronic course, phases of exacerbation and remission. Timely treatment allows you to stop the dystrophic process in the cartilage tissue and maintain the mobility of the legs. In the absence of therapy, a person becomes disabled, and in this case, only surgery and joint replacement can restore the musculoskeletal system.